Artikkel 84
Penalties

Offisielle tekster Retningslinjer
og beslutninger
Vurderinger
EU-regulering
Vurderinger
nasj. regulering
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(148) In order to strengthen the enforcement of the rules of this Regulation, penalties including administrative fines should be imposed for any infringement of this Regulation, in addition to, or instead of appropriate measures imposed by the supervisory authority pursuant to this Regulation. In a case of a minor infringement or if the fine likely to be imposed would constitute a disproportionate burden to a natural person, a reprimand may be issued instead of a fine. Due regard should however be given to the nature, gravity and duration of the infringement, the intentional character of the infringement, actions taken to mitigate the damage suffered, degree of responsibility or any relevant previous infringements, the manner in which the infringement became known to the supervisory authority, compliance with measures ordered against the controller or processor, adherence to a code of conduct and any other aggravating or mitigating factor. The imposition of penalties including administrative fines should be subject to appropriate procedural safeguards in accordance with the general principles of Union law and the Charter, including effective judicial protection and due process.

(149) Member States should be able to lay down the rules on criminal penalties for infringements of this Regulation, including for infringements of national rules adopted pursuant to and within the limits of this Regulation. Those criminal penalties may also allow for the deprivation of the profits obtained through infringements of this Regulation. However, the imposition of criminal penalties for infringements of such national rules and of administrative penalties should not lead to a breach of the principle of ne bis in idem, as interpreted by the Court of Justice.

(150) In order to strengthen and harmonise administrative penalties for infringements of this Regulation, each supervisory authority should have the power to impose administrative fines. This Regulation should indicate infringements and the upper limit and criteria for setting the related administrative fines, which should be determined by the competent supervisory authority in each individual case, taking into account all relevant circumstances of the specific situation, with due regard in particular to the nature, gravity and duration of the infringement and of its consequences and the measures taken to ensure compliance with the obligations under this Regulation and to prevent or mitigate the consequences of the infringement. Where administrative fines are imposed on an undertaking, an undertaking should be understood to be an undertaking in accordance with Articles 101 and 102 TFEU for those purposes. Where administrative fines are imposed on persons that are not an undertaking, the supervisory authority should take account of the general level of income in the Member State as well as the economic situation of the person in considering the appropriate amount of the fine. The consistency mechanism may also be used to promote a consistent application of administrative fines. It should be for the Member States to determine whether and to which extent public authorities should be subject to administrative fines. Imposing an administrative fine or giving a warning does not affect the application of other powers of the supervisory authorities or of other penalties under this Regulation.

(151) The legal systems of Denmark and Estonia do not allow for administrative fines as set out in this Regulation. The rules on administrative fines may be applied in such a manner that in Denmark the fine is imposed by competent national courts as a criminal penalty and in Estonia the fine is imposed by the supervisory authority in the framework of a misdemeanour procedure, provided that such an application of the rules in those Member States has an equivalent effect to administrative fines imposed by supervisory authorities. Therefore the competent national courts should take into account the recommendation by the supervisory authority initiating the fine. In any event, the fines imposed should be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

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(55) Whereas, if the controller fails to respect the rights of data subjects, national legislation must provide for a judicial remedy; whereas any damage which a person may suffer as a result of unlawful processing must be compensated for by the controller, who may be exempted from liability if he proves that he is not responsible for the damage, in particular in cases where he establishes fault on the part of the data subject or in case of force majeure; whereas sanctions must be imposed on any person, whether governed by private of public law, who fails to comply with the national measures taken under this Directive;

GDPR

Article 84 of the Regulation does not bring anything new. It takes the principles already present in the Directive: Member States shall lay down the rules on other penalties applicable to infringements of this Regulation in particular for infringements which are not subject to administrative fines pursuant to Article 83, and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented. These penalties must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

The only real novelty is that each Member State shall notify the Commission of the measures it adopts under paragraph 1, no later than 2 years after the publication of the Regulation, and without delay of any subsequent amendment affecting them.

Direktivet

The Directive contained only a general provision (Art. 24) requiring the states to take appropriate measures to ensure full implementation of its provisions and specify penalties in cases of infringement of the provisions adopted pursuant to this Directive.

Utfordringer

The divergences with respect to penalties between the Member States could be damaging to a harmonized protection but the imposition of the system of administrative penalty provided for in Article 83 in each Member State should limit these consequences.

Forordning
1e 2e

Art. 84

1.   Member States shall lay down the rules on other penalties applicable to infringements of this Regulation in particular for infringements which are not subject to administrative fines pursuant to Article 83, and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented. Such penalties shall be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

2.   Each Member State shall notify to the Commission the provisions of its law which it adopts pursuant to paragraph 1, by 25 May 2018 and, without delay, any subsequent amendment affecting them.

1. forslag close

Art. 78

1. Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties, applicable to infringements of the provisions of this Regulation and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented, including where the controller did not comply with the obligation to designate a representative. The penalties provided for must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

2. Where the controller has established a representative, any penalties shall be applied to the representative, without prejudice to any penalties which could be initiated against the controller.

3. Each Member State shall notify to the Commission those provisions of its law which it adopts pursuant to paragraph 1, by the date specified in Article 91(2) at the latest and, without delay, any subsequent amendment affecting them.

2. forslag close

Art. 79b

 1. For infringements (…)of this Regulation in particular for infringements which are not subject to administrative fines pursuant to (…) Article 79a Member States shall lay down the rules on penalties applicable to such infringements and shall take all measures necessary to ensure that they are implemented (…). Such penalties shall be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

2. (…).

3. Each Member State shall notify to the Commission those provisions of its law which it adopts pursuant to paragraph 1, by the date specified in Article 91(2) at the latest and, without delay, any subsequent amendment affecting them.

Direktiv close

Art. 24

The Member States shall adopt suitable measures to ensure the full implementation of the provisions of this Directive and shall in particular lay down the sanctions to be imposed in case of infringement of the provisions adopted pursuant to this Directive.

Alt. 84

Sanksjoner

1. Medlemsstatene skal fastsette regler om andre sanksjoner for overtredelser av denne forordning, særlig for overtredelser som ikke omfattes av overtredelsesgebyrer i henhold til artikkel 83, og skal treffe alle nødvendige tiltak for å sikre at de gjennomføres. Sanksjonene skal være virkningsfulle, stå i rimelig forhold til overtredelsen og virke avskrekkende.

2. Medlemsstatene skal senest 25. mai 2018 underrette Kommisjonen om de lovbestemmelser de vedtar i henhold til nr. 1, og uten opphold om eventuelle senere endringer som påvirker dem.

Gamle loven close

Pol. § 46 Overtredelsesgebyr. Pålegg om endring eller opphør av ulovlige behandlinger

Datatilsynet kan pålegge den som har overtrådt denne loven eller forskrifter i medhold av den, å betale et pengebeløp til statskassen (overtredelsesgebyr) på inntil 10 ganger grunnbeløpet i folketrygden. Fysiske personer kan bare ilegges overtredelsesgebyr for forsettlige eller uaktsomme overtredelser. Et foretak kan ikke ilegges overtredelsesgebyr dersom overtredelsen skyldes forhold utenfor foretakets kontroll.

Ved vurderingen av om overtredelsesgebyr skal ilegges, og ved utmålingen, skal det særlig legges vekt på

a) hvor alvorlig overtredelsen har krenket de interesser loven verner,

b) graden av skyld,

c) om overtrederen ved retningslinjer, instruksjon, opplæring, kontroll eller andre tiltak kunne ha forebygget overtredelsen,

d) om overtredelsen er begått for å fremme overtrederens interesser,

e) om overtrederen har hatt eller kunne ha oppnådd noen fordel ved overtredelsen,

f) om det foreligger gjentakelse,

g) om andre reaksjoner som følge av overtredelsen blir ilagt overtrederen eller noen som har handlet på vegne av denne, blant annet om noen enkeltperson blir ilagt straff og

h) overtrederens økonomiske evne.

Oppfyllelsesfristen er 4 uker etter at vedtaket om overtredelsesgebyr er endelig. Dersom et vedtak om overtredelsesgebyr bringes inn for en domstol, kan den prøve alle sider av saken.

Datatilsynet kan gi pålegg om at behandling av personopplysninger3 i strid med bestemmelser i eller i medhold av denne loven skal opphøre, eller stille vilkår som må være oppfylt for at behandlingen skal være i samsvar med loven.

Pol. § 47 Tvangsmulkt

Ved pålegg etter § 12, § 27, § 28 og § 46 kan Datatilsynet3 fastsette en tvangsmulkt som løper for hver dag som går etter utløpet av den fristen som er satt for oppfylling av pålegget, inntil pålegget er oppfylt.

Tvangsmulkten løper ikke før klagefristen er ute. Hvis vedtaket påklages, løper ikke tvangsmulkt før Personvernnemnda4 har bestemt det.

Pol. § 47 a. Innkreving av refusjonskrav, overtredelsesgebyr og tvangsmulkt

Refusjonskrav som nevnt i § 44, overtredelsesgebyr etter § 46 og tvangsmulkt etter § 47 er tvangsgrunnlag for utlegg.

Pol. § 48 Straff

Med bøter eller fengsel inntil ett år eller begge deler straffes den som forsettlig eller grovt uaktsomt

a) unnlater å sende melding etter § 31,

b) behandler personopplysninger2 uten nødvendig konsesjon etter § 33,

c) overtrer vilkår fastsatt etter § 35 eller § 46,

d) unnlater å etterkomme pålegg fra Datatilsynet etter § 12, § 27, § 28 eller § 46,

e) behandler personopplysninger i strid med § 13, § 15, § 26 eller § 39, eller

f) unnlater å gi opplysninger etter § 19, § 20, § 21, § 40 eller § 44.

Ved særdeles skjerpende omstendigheter kan fengsel inntil tre år idømmes. Ved avgjørelsen av om det foreligger særdeles skjerpende omstendigheter skal det blant annet legges vekt på faren for stor skade eller ulempe for den registrerte, den tilsiktede vinningen ved overtredelsen, overtredelsens varighet og omfang, utvist skyld, og om den behandlingsansvarlige4 tidligere er straffet for å ha overtrådt tilsvarende bestemmelser.

I forskrift som gis i medhold av loven, kan det fastsettes at den som forsettlig eller grovt uaktsomt overtrer forskriften skal straffes med bøter eller fengsel inntil ett år eller begge deler.

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