Artikkel 52
Independence

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EU-regulering
Vurderinger
nasj. regulering
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(117) The establishment of supervisory authorities in Member States, empowered to perform their tasks and exercise their powers with complete independence, is an essential component of the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of their personal data. Member States should be able to establish more than one supervisory authority, to reflect their constitutional, organisational and administrative structure.

(118) The independence of supervisory authorities should not mean that the supervisory authorities cannot be subject to control or monitoring mechanisms regarding their financial expenditure or to judicial review.

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(62) Whereas the establishment in Member States of supervisory authorities, exercising their functions with complete independence, is an essential component of the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data;

GDPR

Article 52 is intended to clarify the conditions guaranteeing the independence of the supervisory authorities, in accordance with the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU, 9 March 2010, C-518/07), and also on the basis of Article 44 of Regulation (EC) No. 45/200135.

In this case, the Court considered that the Federal Republic of Germany had failed to fulfil the obligations imposed under Article 28, paragraph 1, second subparagraph of Directive 95/46 by submitting to the guardianship of the State the supervisory authorities competent for monitoring the personal data processing by the non-public sector in the different countries, thus transposing incorrectly the requirement that these authorities exercise their tasks “with complete independence”.

Furthermore, Regulation (EC) No. 45/2001 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2000 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data by the Community institutions and bodies and on the free movement of such data provides in details the conditions of independence of the European data protection controller.

Article 52 codifies that the supervisory authority of each Member State shall act with complete independence in performing its tasks and exercising its powers, in accordance with this Regulation. Accordingly, the second paragraph of Article 52 specifies that member or members of each supervisory authority shall, in the performance of their tasks and exercise of their powers, remain free from external influence, whether direct or indirect, and shall neither seek nor take instructions from anybody.

The third paragraph obliges the members of the supervisory authority to refrain from any action incompatible with their duties and shall not, during their term of office, engage in any incompatible occupation, whether profitable or not (Art. 52 (3)). Pursuant to paragraph 4, each Member State shall ensure that each supervisory authority is provided with the staff, technical and financial resources, premises and infrastructure necessary for the effective performance of its tasks and exercise of its powers, including those to be carried out in the context of mutual assistance, cooperation and participation in the European Data Protection Board.

Each supervisory authority must also be able to choose and have its own staff which shall be subject to the exclusive direction of the member or members of the supervisory authority concerned (paragraph 5).

Finally, as stated in recital 118, the independence of supervisory authorities should not mean that the supervisory authorities cannot be subject to control or monitoring mechanisms regarding their financial management. Accordingly, Article 52, paragraph 6 provides that each supervisory authority is subject to financial control which does not affect its independence. For this purpose, each supervisory authority shall have a separate, public annual budget, which may be part of the overall state or national budget.

Direktivet

According to Article 28, paragraph 1, second subparagraph of the Directive, the national authorities shall act with complete independence in exercising the functions entrusted to them.

Utfordringer

We do not see a priori any specific implementation difficulties.

Forordning
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Art. 52

1.   Each supervisory authority shall act with complete independence in performing its tasks and exercising its powers in accordance with this Regulation.

2.   The member or members of each supervisory authority shall, in the performance of their tasks and exercise of their powers in accordance with this Regulation, remain free from external influence, whether direct or indirect, and shall neither seek nor take instructions from anybody.

3.   Member or members of each supervisory authority shall refrain from any action incompatible with their duties and shall not, during their term of office, engage in any incompatible occupation, whether gainful or not.

4.   Each Member State shall ensure that each supervisory authority is provided with the human, technical and financial resources, premises and infrastructure necessary for the effective performance of its tasks and exercise of its powers, including those to be carried out in the context of mutual assistance, cooperation and participation in the Board.

5.   Each Member State shall ensure that each supervisory authority chooses and has its own staff which shall be subject to the exclusive direction of the member or members of the supervisory authority concerned.

6.   Each Member State shall ensure that each supervisory authority is subject to financial control which does not affect its independence and that it has separate, public annual budgets, which may be part of the overall state or national budget.

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Art. 47

1.           The supervisory authority shall act with complete independence in exercising the duties and powers entrusted to it.

2.           The members of the supervisory authority shall, in the performance of their duties, neither seek nor take instructions from anybody.

3.           Members of the supervisory authority shall refrain from any action incompatible with their duties and shall not, during their term of office, engage in any incompatible occupation, whether gainful or not.

4.           Members of the supervisory authority shall behave, after their term of office, with integrity and discretion as regards the acceptance of appointments and benefits.

5.           Each Member State shall ensure that the supervisory authority is provided with the adequate human, technical and financial resources, premises and infrastructure necessary for the effective performance of its duties and powers, including those to be carried out in the context of mutual assistance, co-operation and participation in the European Data Protection Board.

6.           Each Member State shall ensure that the supervisory authority has its own staff which shall be appointed by and be subject to the direction of the head of the supervisory authority.

7.           Member States shall ensure that the supervisory authority is subject to financial control which shall not affect its independence. Member States shall ensure that the supervisory authority has separate annual budgets. The budgets shall be made public.

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Art. 47

1. Each supervisory authority shall act with complete independence in performing the duties and exercising the powers entrusted to it in accordance with this Regulation.

2. The member or members of each supervisory authority shall, in the performance of their duties and exercise of their powers in accordance with this Regulation, remain free from external influence, whether direct or indirect and neither seek nor take instructions from anybody.

3. (...)

4. (...)

5. Each Member State shall ensure that each supervisory authority is provided with the (...) human, technical and financial resources, premises and infrastructure necessary for the effective performance of its duties and exercise of its powers, including those to be carried out in the context of mutual assistance, co-operation and participation in the European Data Protection Board.

6. Each Member State shall ensure that each supervisory authority has its own staff which shall (...) be subject to the direction of the member or members of the supervisory authority.

7. Member States shall ensure that each supervisory authority is subject to financial control which shall not affect its independence. Member States shall ensure that each supervisory authority has separate, public, annual budgets, which may be part of the overall state or national budget.

Direktiv close

Art. 28

(…).

These authorities shall act with complete independence in exercising the functions entrusted to them.

 

 

Art. 52

Uavhengighet

1. Hver tilsynsmyndighet skal utføre sine oppgaver og utøve sin myndighet etter denne forordning i full uavhengighet.

2. Når medlemmet/medlemmene av hver tilsynsmyndighet utfører sine oppgaver og utøver sin myndighet i samsvar med denne forordning, skal de ikke utsettes for påvirkninger utenfra, verken direkte eller indirekte, og skal ikke anmode om eller motta instrukser fra noen.

3. Medlemmet/medlemmene av hver tilsynsmyndighet skal avstå fra enhver handling som ikke er forenlig med vedkommendes oppgaver, og skal så lenge utnevnelsesperioden varer, ikke utøve en uforenlig yrkesvirksomhet, verken lønnet eller ulønnet.

4. Hver medlemsstat skal sikre at hver tilsynsmyndighet har de menneskelige, tekniske og økonomiske ressurser og lokaler samt infrastruktur som er nødvendig for å kunne utføre sine oppgaver og utøve sin myndighet på en effektiv måte, herunder i forbindelse med gjensidig bistand, samarbeid og deltaking i Personvernrådet.

5. Hver medlemsstat skal sikre at hver tilsynsmyndighet velger og har sitt eget personell som utelukkende skal stå under ledelse av medlemmet/medlemmene av den berørte tilsynsmyndighet.

6. Hver medlemsstat skal sikre at hver tilsynsmyndighet er underlagt finansiell kontroll som ikke påvirker dens uavhengighet, og at den har separate, offentlige årsbudsjetter som kan være en del av det samlede statsbudsjettet eller nasjonalbudsjettet.

Gamle loven close

Pol. § 42 Datatilsynets organisering og oppgaver

Datatilsynet er et uavhengig forvaltningsorgan administrativt underordnet Kongen og departementet. Kongen og departementet kan ikke gi instruks om eller omgjøre Datatilsynets utøving av myndighet i enkelttilfeller etter loven.

Datatilsynet skal

1) føre en systematisk og offentlig fortegnelse over alle behandlinger som er innmeldt etter § 31 eller gitt konsesjon etter § 33, med opplysninger som nevnt i § 18 første ledd jf. § 23,

2) behandle søknader om konsesjoner, motta meldinger og vurdere om det skal gis pålegg der loven gir hjemmel for dette,

3) kontrollere at lover og forskrifter som gjelder for behandling av personopplysninger blir fulgt, og at feil eller mangler blir rettet,

4) holde seg orientert om og informere om den generelle nasjonale og internasjonale utviklingen i behandlingen av personopplysninger og om de problemer som knytter seg til slik behandling,

5) identifisere farer for personvernet, og gi råd om hvordan de kan unngås eller begrenses,

6) gi råd og veiledning i spørsmål om personvern og sikring av personopplysninger til dem som planlegger å behandle personopplysninger eller utvikle systemer for slik behandling,3 herunder bistå i utarbeidelsen av bransjevise atferdsnormer,

7) etter henvendelse eller av eget tiltak gi uttalelse i spørsmål om behandling av personopplysninger, og

8) gi Kongen årsmelding om sin virksomhet.

Datatilsynet ledes av en direktør som utnevnes av Kongen. Kongen kan bestemme at direktøren ansettes på åremål.Avgjørelser som Datatilsynet fatter i medhold av § 9, § 12, § 27, § 28, § 30, § 33, § 34, § 35, § 44, § 46 og § 47 kan påklages til Personvernnemnda.4 Avgjørelser som fattes i medhold av § 27 eller § 28 kan påklages videre til Kongen dersom avgjørelsen gjelder personopplysninger som behandles for historiske formål.

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