Artikkel 23
Restrictions

Offisielle tekster Retningslinjer
og beslutninger
Vurderinger
EU-regulering
Vurderinger
nasj. regulering
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(8) Where this Regulation provides for specifications or restrictions of its rules by Member State law, Member States may, as far as necessary for coherence and for making the national provisions comprehensible to the persons to whom they apply, incorporate elements of this Regulation into their national law.

(73) Restrictions concerning specific principles and the rights of information, access to and rectification or erasure of personal data, the right to data portability, the right to object, decisions based on profiling, as well as the communication of a personal data breach to a data subject and certain related obligations of the controllers may be imposed by Union or Member State law, as far as necessary and proportionate in a democratic society to safeguard public security, including the protection of human life especially in response to natural or manmade disasters, the prevention, investigation and prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, including the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security, or of breaches of ethics for regulated professions, other important objectives of general public interest of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, the keeping of public registers kept for reasons of general public interest, further processing of archived personal data to provide specific information related to the political behaviour under former totalitarian state regimes or the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others, including social protection, public health and humanitarian purposes. Those restrictions should be in accordance with the requirements set out in the Charter and in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.

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(43) Whereas restrictions on the rights of access and information and on certain obligations of the controller may similarly be imposed by Member States in so far as they are necessary to safeguard, for example, national security, defence, public safety, or important economic or financial interests of a Member State or the Union, as well as criminal investigations and prosecutions and action in respect of breaches of ethics in the regulated professions; whereas the list of exceptions and limitations should include the tasks of monitoring, inspection or regulation necessary in the three last-mentioned areas concerning public security, economic or financial interests and crime prevention; whereas the listing of tasks in these three areas does not affect the legitimacy of exceptions or restrictions for reasons of State security or defence;

(44) Whereas Member States may also be led, by virtue of the provisions of Community law, to derogate from the provisions of this Directive concerning the right of access, the obligation to inform individuals, and the quality of data, in order to secure certain of the purposes referred to above;

GDPR

Article 23 of the Regulation being directly inspired by Article 13 of the Directive states that the Member States may maintain or introduce statutory restrictions to the data subject right sunder Articles 12 to 22 and Article 34 relating to the notification to the data subject about a breach of personal data and the principles set out in Article 5, provided that those restrictions comply with the essence of the fundamental rights and freedoms and is a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard certain interests that are listed exhaustively.

Compared to the Directive, there is an extension of these interests including protection against threats to public safety and the prevention of these, important objectives of public interests of the Union or a Member State including an economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, including monetary, budgetary and fiscal areas, public health and social security, or even the protection of the independence of justice and of judicial proceedings or to enable the execution of applications of civil law.

Article 23 in fine provides however that the legislative restrictions introduced by the Member States should contain many specific provisions relating to purposes, categories of processing and personal data, the extent of the introduced restrictions, or also to the risks to the rights and freedoms of individuals and the right of the data subject to be informed about such restrictions.

Direktivet

Under the Directive (Art. 13), the Member States were already allowed to limit the scope of the rights and obligations provided for in Article 6 on the quality of the data; in Articles 10 and 11 relating to the information to be provided to the data subject; Article 12 on the right to object and article 21 on the publicizing of processing. 

However such limitations are measures necessary for the implementation of exhaustively listed interests, for example, for ensuring the national security, defence, public security or prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal offences or of breaches of ethics in the case of the regulated professions.

Utfordringer

The possibilities of restrictions being extended, the room for maneuvering of the states increases, resulting in a risk of divergence of the protection systems, at the expense of the goal of harmonization of the new regulations. It is true that in return, the states will have to adapt them by more guarantees for the people, which can then be controlled by the Court of Justice.

Forordning
1e 2e

Art. 23

1.   Union or Member State law to which the data controller or processor is subject may restrict by way of a legislative measure the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in Articles 12 to 22 and Article 34, as well as Article 5 in so far as its provisions correspond to the rights and obligations provided for in Articles 12 to 22, when such a restriction respects the essence of the fundamental rights and freedoms and is a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard:

(a) national security;

(b) defence;

(c) public security;

(d) the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties, including the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security;

(e) other important objectives of general public interest of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, including monetary, budgetary and taxation a matters, public health and social security;

(f) the protection of judicial independence and judicial proceedings;

(g) the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of breaches of ethics for regulated professions;

(h) a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, to the exercise of official authority in the cases referred to in points (a) to (e) and (g);

(i) the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others;

(j) the enforcement of civil law claims.

2.   In particular, any legislative measure referred to in paragraph 1 shall contain specific provisions at least, where relevant, as to:

(a) the purposes of the processing or categories of processing;

(b) the categories of personal data;

(c) the scope of the restrictions introduced;

(d) the safeguards to prevent abuse or unlawful access or transfer;

(e) the specification of the controller or categories of controllers;

(f) the storage periods and the applicable safeguards taking into account the nature, scope and purposes of the processing or categories of processing;

(g) the risks to the rights and freedoms of data subjects; and

(h) the right of data subjects to be informed about the restriction, unless that may be prejudicial to the purpose of the restriction

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Art. 21

1.           Union or Member State law may restrict by way of a legislative measure the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in points (a) to (e) of Article 5 and Articles 11 to 20 and Article 32, when such a restriction constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard:

(a)     public security;

(b)     the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal offences;

(c)     other public interests of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, including monetary, budgetary and taxation matters and the protection of market stability and integrity;

(d)     the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of breaches of ethics for regulated professions;

(e)     a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, with the exercise of official authority in cases referred to in (a), (b), (c) and (d);

(f)      the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others.

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Art. 21

1.  Union or Member State law to which the data controller or processor is subject may restrict by way of a legislative measure the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in (...) Articles 12 to 20 and Article 32,  as well as Article 5 in so far as its provisions correspond to the rights and obligations provided for in Articles 12 to 20, when such a restriction constitutes a necessary and proportionate measure in a democratic society to safeguard:

(aa) national security;

(ab) defence;

(a) public security;

(b) the prevention, investigation, detection or prosecution of criminal offences or the execution of criminal penalties or the safeguarding against and the prevention of threats to public security;

(c) other important objectives of general public interests of the Union or of a Member State, in particular an important economic or financial interest of the Union or of a Member State, including, monetary, budgetary and taxation matters, public health and social security,the protection of market stability and integrity;

(ca) the protection of judicial independence and judicial proceedings ;

(d) the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of breaches of ethics for regulated professions;

(e) a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, with the exercise of official authority in cases referred to in (aa), (ab), (a), (b), (c) and (d);

(f) the protection of the data subject or the rights and freedoms of others;

(g) the enforcement of civil law claims

2. Any legislative measure referred to in paragraph 1 shall contain specific provisions at least, where relevant, as to the purposes of the processing or categories of processing, the categories of personal data, the scope of the restrictions introduced, the specification of the controller or categories of controllers, the storage periods and the applicable safeguards taking into account the nature, scope and purposes of the processing or categories of processing and the risks for the rights and freedoms of data subjects

.

 

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Art. 13

1. Member States may adopt legislative measures to restrict the scope of the obligations and rights provided for in Articles 6 (1), 10, 11 (1), 12 and 21 when such a restriction constitutes a necessary measures to safeguard:

(a) national security;

(b) defence;

(c) public security;

(d) the prevention, investigation, detection and prosecution of criminal offences, or of breaches of ethics for regulated professions;

(e) an important economic or financial interest of a Member State or of the European Union, including monetary, budgetary and taxation matters;

(f) a monitoring, inspection or regulatory function connected, even occasionally, with the exercise of official authority in cases referred to in (c), (d) and (e);

(g) the protection of the data subject or of the rights and freedoms of others.

2. Subject to adequate legal safeguards, in particular that the data are not used for taking measures or decisions regarding any particular individual, Member States may, where there is clearly no risk of breaching the privacy of the data subject, restrict by a legislative measure the rights provided for in Article 12 when data are processed solely for purposes of scientific research or are kept in personal form for a period which does not exceed the period necessary for the sole purpose of creating statistics.

Art. 23

Begrensninger

1. Unionsretten eller medlemsstatenes nasjonale rett som den behandlingsansvarlige eller databehandleren er underlagt, kan ved lovgivningsmessige tiltak begrense rekkevidden av forpliktelsene og rettighetene fastsatt i artikkel 12–22 og artikkel 34 samt i artikkel 5 i den grad dens bestemmelser svarer til rettighetene og pliktene fastsatt i artikkel 12–22, når en slik begrensning overholder det vesentligste innholdet i de grunnleggende rettighetene og frihetene og er et nødvendig og forholdsmessig tiltak i et demokratisk samfunn for å sikre

a) den nasjonale sikkerhet,

b) forsvaret,

c) den offentlige sikkerhet,

d) forebygging, etterforskning, avsløring eller straffeforfølging av straffbare forhold eller iverksettelse av strafferettslige sanksjoner, herunder vern mot og forebygging av trusler mot den offentlige sikkerhet,

e) andre viktige mål av generell allmenn interesse for Unionen eller en medlemsstat, særlig Unionens eller en medlemsstats viktige økonomiske eller finansielle interesser, herunder valuta-, budsjett- og skattesaker, folkehelse og trygdespørsmål,

f) beskyttelse av rettsvesenets uavhengighet samt retterganger,

g) forebygging, etterforskning, avsløring og straffeforfølging av brudd på yrkesetiske regler i lovregulerte yrker,

h) en kontroll-, tilsyns- eller reguleringsfunksjon som, også midlertidig, er knyttet til utøvelse av offentlig myndighet i tilfellene nevnt i bokstav a)–e) og g),

i) vern av den registrertes interesser eller andres rettigheter og friheter,

j) håndheving av sivilrettslige krav.

2. Alle lovgivningsmessige tiltak nevnt i nr. 1 skal, når det er relevant, minst inneholde særlige bestemmelser om

a) formålene med behandlingen eller kategorier av behandling,

b) kategoriene av personopplysninger,

c) omfanget av begrensningene som er innført,

d) garantiene for å unngå misbruk eller ulovlig tilgang eller overføring,

e) spesifisering av den behandlingsansvarlige eller kategoriene av behandlingsansvarlige,

f) lagringsperioder og gjeldende garantier, idet det tas hensyn til arten, omfanget av og formålene med behandlingen eller kategoriene av behandling,

g) risikoene for de registrertes rettigheter og friheter og

h) de registrertes rett til å bli underrettet om begrensningen, med mindre dette kan skade formålet med begrensningen.

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Pol. § 23 Unntak fra retten til informasjon

Retten til innsyn etter § 18 og § 22 og plikten til å gi informasjon etter § 19, § 20 og § 21 omfatter ikke opplysninger som

a) om de ble kjent, ville kunne skade rikets sikkerhet, landets forsvar eller forholdet til fremmede makter eller internasjonale organisasjoner,

b) det er påkrevd å hemmeligholde av hensyn til forebygging, etterforskning, avsløring og rettslig forfølgning av straffbare handlinger,

c) det må anses utilrådelig at den registrerte får kjennskap til, av hensyn til vedkommendes helse eller forholdet til personer som står vedkommende nær,

d) det i medhold av lov gjelder taushetsplikt for,

e) utelukkende finnes i tekst som er utarbeidet for den interne saksforberedelse og som heller ikke er utlevert til andre,

f) det vil være i strid med åpenbare og grunnleggende private eller offentlige interesser å informere om, herunder hensynet til den registrerte selv.

Opplysninger etter første ledd bokstav c kan på anmodning likevel gjøres kjent for en representant for den registrerte når ikke særlige grunner taler mot det.

Den som nekter å gi innsyn i medhold av første ledd må begrunne dette skriftlig med presis henvisning til unntakshjemmelen.

Kongen kan gi forskrift om andre unntak fra innsynsretten og informasjonsplikten og om vilkår for bruk av innsynsretten.

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